The VIPP-SD is a short-term (preventive) intervention for caregivers of children in the age of 1 to 6 years old. The program is carried out at the family’s home and consists of 7 visits (sessions) of approximately 2 hours each. Caregivers learn to see the world through the eyes of their child. They are provided with guidance regarding sensitive parenting behavior, setting boundaries and regulating unruly or disobedient behavior of the child.

VIPP-SD has been developed at the Institute of Education and Child Studies at Leiden University, by Prof. dr. Femmie Juffer, Prof. dr. Marian Bakermans-Kranenburg, and Prof. dr. Marinus van IJzendoorn. The intervention is aimed at improving the caregiver-child relationship and to prevent or reduce behavior problems in children. For caregivers of infants between 6 and 12 months old, the program can be used without the ‘Sensitive Discipline’ component.

During the visits several video recordings are made of diverse caregiver-child interactions in everyday (play)situations. Thereafter the recordings of the previous visit viewed are discussed by the caregiver and intervener. While discussing the recordings, the caregiver and intervener work together on:

  1. increasing the observational skills of caregivers.
  2. increasing caregivers knowledge about the upbringing and development of young children.
  3. increasing the capacity of caregivers to empathize with their children.
  4. making the care giving behavior more effective by using sensitive responsiveness and sensitive discipline. VIPP Video feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting

Scientific base for the intervention

The method is based on attachment theory developed by John Bowlby (1969) and Mary Ainsworth (Ainsworth et al., 1974). In addition, principles from ‘coercion’ theory of Gerald Patterson (1982) are incorporated into the method.

Effective elements are the use of video-feedback, whereby the caregiver is its own model, and is acknowledged as the expert of the child. The focus lies on increasing sensitivity through reinforcement of the strong points of parenting behaviour, positive child behaviour and positive caregiver-child interactions. The current VIPP-SD intervention was finalized in 2008 and training courses for professionals have been provided ever since.

Stucture of the intervention

The intervention consists of a short introduction visit, followed by 6 visits with video-feedback. During the introduction visit the caregiver receives information about the method of the intervention with the video-feedback, and the first video recordings will be made of some everyday (play)situations. Every next visit (except for visit 7) starts with a recording session, after which the recordings of the previous visit are viewed and discussed by the caregiver and intervener. In visit 2 to 5 this is done on the basis of central themes for sensitive parenting and disciplining. Visits 6 and 7 are booster sessions in which all themes are discussed again. Below you will find an overview of main themes per visit:

Home visit 2:

Sensitivity; Exploration versus attachment behaviour. 

Discipline;  Inductive discipline and distraction.

Home visit 3:

Sensitivity; The child’s point of view. 

Discipline; Positieve reinforcement.

Home visit 4:

Sensitivity; Sensitivity chain.

Discipline;  Sensitive time-out.

Home visit 5:

Sensitivity; Sharing emotions.

Discipline;  Empathy for the child.


Target group

The target group consists of caregivers who experience problems with sensitive parenting or setting boundaries to a child aged 1 to 6 years, resulting in caregiver-child relationship problems and/or (an increased) risk of external behavioural problems like aggression, oppositional behaviour and overactive behaviour from the child.

By who is the intervention implemented?

The VIPP-SD intervention can be implemented by all professionals working with caregivers of young children, certified as VIPP-SD Interveners. Professionals include (special needs) educationalists, psychologists, (social psychiatric) nurses, social workers, social therapists, pedagogical staff, employees of infant welfare centres, child psychiatrists, behavioral scientists and trainees in similar or related fields.